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23 August 2016

Pierre Fresnay

One of the most important French stage and film actors of his era was Pierre Fresnay (1897-1975). He abandoned a career with the Comédie-Française for the challenge of the cinema, and appeared in more than sixty films. His best known films include Marius (1931), Hitchcock's first version of The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934), and Renoir’s epic La Grande Illusion (1937). From WW I he returned as a hero, but after WW II he was detained in prison while allegations of collaboration were investigated.

Pierre Fresnay
French postcard by EC, no. 94. Photo: G.L. Manuel Frères.

La Grande Illusion
Italian programme card for Il Cinema Ritrovata 2012. Photo: publicity still for La Grande Illusion (Jean Renoir, 1937) with Jean Gabin and Pierre Fresnay.

Pierre Fresnay
French postcard by Viny, no. 86. Photo: Vedis-Film. Publicity still for Les trois valses/Three Waltzes (Ludwig Berger, 1938).

Pierre Fresnay
French postcard by SERP, Paris, no. 35. Photo: Studio Harcourt.

Marius


Pierre Fresnay was born Pierre Jules Louis Laudenbach in Paris, France in 1897. He was the son of Jean Henri Laudenbach, professor philosophy, and Désirée Claire Dietz.

At 14, Pierre made his stage debut. His uncle, the actor Claude Garry encouraged him to pursue a career in theatre and film, and arranged a small role for him in L’Aigrette by Dario Niccodemi at the Theatre Rejane. This was against the wishes of his parents who had hoped Pierre might pursue a university career. On this occasion he chose his first stage name, Pierre Vernet.

In 1914, he entered the Conservatoire national de musique et de déclamation (National Conservatory of Music and Declamation in Paris), in a class with Mounet Paul and Georges Berr. Only 19, he was hired by the prestigious Comédie-Française as a pensionnaire (contract player). He had his first major theater role in Le Jeu de l'amour et du hasard (The Game of Love and Chance) in 1915.

That same year he made his silent film debut with a small role in the patriotic drama France d'abord/First France (Henri Pouctal, 1915) with André Luguet. World War I was raging, and in 1917 he enlisted as a soldier in the French Army. After the war, he returned to his career as a hero.

Throughout the 1920s, Fresnay appeared in many popular stage productions. He became a sociétaire (life member) of the Comédie-Française four years before he resigned in 1927. During the next 10 years he worked in England and the United States as well as in France. He was outstanding in the title roles in Cyrano de Bergerac (1928) and Don Juan (London, 1934). He had his greatest stage success in the title role of Marcel Pagnol’s Marius (1929). The play ran for over 500 performances.

Pierre Fresnay
French postcard, no. H 3. Photo: Jim.

Pierre Fresnay
French postcard by Collection Chantal, Paris, no. 4. Photo: Védis Films. Publicity still for Les trois valses/Three Waltzes (Ludwig Berger, 1938).

Pierre Fresnay in Les trois valses (1938)
French postcard by Edit. Chantal, Rueil (S.O.), no. 94A. Photo: Védis Films. Publicity still for Les trois valses/Three Waltzes (Ludwig Berger, 1938).

Pierre Fresnay in Les trois valses (1938)
French postcard by Edit. Chantal, Rueil (S.O.), no. 94. Photo: Védis Films. Publicity still for Les trois valses/Three Waltzes (Ludwig Berger, 1938).

A Breath of Fresh Air


Pierre Fresnay’s first great screen role was also as Marius in the film adaptation of Pagnol’s play, Marius (Alexander Korda, 1931). At Le Film Guide, James Travers writes: “Marius offered an unembellished slice of life in the southern French port which came as a breath of fresh air to audiences of the time. What was so refreshing about the film was its total lack of artifice. The story it tells is a simple one which anyone who saw it could relate to. It deals with everyday themes - the rift between parents and their grown-up children, the pains and practicalities of falling in love, the difficulty of reconciling personal ambitions with the emotional need for love and stability.”

The part established Fresnay’s reputation as a cinema actor and made him an instant matinee idol. He played Marius again in the next two parts of Marcel Pagnol's Marseilles Trilogy, Fanny (1932, Marc Allégret) featuring Orane Demazis, and César (1936, Marcel Pagnol) starring Raimu.

In 1934, he played Armand Duval in La Dame aux Camelias/Lady of the Camelias (Fernand Rivers, Abel Gance, 1934) at the side of Yvonne Printemps. The two married that same year. They appeared in eight films together, including the film operetta Trois Valses/Three Waltzes (Ludwig Berger, 1938).

Fresnay also appeared as the first-reel murder victim in Alfred Hitchcock's first version of The Man Who Knew Too Much (Alfred Hitchcock, 1934) with Leslie Banks and Peter Lorre.

A highpoint in his film career was his appearance as the young French officer opposite Erich von Stroheim in the anti-war epic La Grande Illusion/Grand Illusion (Jean Renoir, 1937). James Travers: “One of the undisputed masterpieces of cinema history, La Grande illusion is a film of enduring popularity and one of the most powerful anti-war films of the Twentieth century. It stands beside Jean Renoir’s other triumph, La Regle du jeu, as one of the all-time great French films.”

With the collaboration of an unknown script writer, Henri-Georges Clouzot, Fresnay directed his one and only film Le Duel/The Duel (Pierre Fresnay, 1939), starring Yvonne Printemps. According to James Travers, Le Duel “was a mediocre effort which was soon forgotten with the outbreak of World War Two”.

Pierre Fresnay
French postcard, no. 94. Photo: Films Derby. Publicity still for Le puritain/The Puritan (Jeff Musso, 1938).

Pierre Fresnay
French postcard by Erpé, no. 625. Photo: C.F.C.

Pierre Fresnay
French postcard by Editions E.C., Paris, no. 7. Photo: C.P.L.F.

Pierre Fresnay
French postcard by Editions P.I., Paris, no. 150. Photo: Pathé Cinema.

Subversive and Immoral Overtones


Under the Nazi occupation of France, Pierre Fresnay worked for the Franco-German film company Continental, which was closely vetted by the Germans.

Fresnay appeared in a number of high quality productions, including a number of films written or directed by his close friend Henri-Georges Clouzot. These included the comedy thriller Le Dernier des Six/The Last One of the Six (Georges Lacombe, 1941), where Fresnay played the part of the cool (but patient) Commissioner Wens.

He reprised the role for Clouzot’s directoral debut, L’Assassin habite au 21/The Murderer Lives at Number 21 (Henri-Georges Clouzot, 1942) with the bubbling Suzy Delair as Wens’ girlfriend.

Fresnay later also starred in Clouzot’s most controversial film Le Corbeau/The Raven (Henri-Georges Clouzot, 1943), which created such an uproar that its director was temporarily banned from making films.

James Travers at Le Film Guide: “The film was banned after the war because of its perceived subversive and immoral overtones. The story was based on a real-life case which took place in the French town of Tulle in the 1920’s. The film is an excellent suspense thriller, easily in the league of Clouzot’s subsequent films of this genre (Le Salaire de la peur/The Wages of Fear (1953) and Les Diaboliques/Diabolique (1954)).”

Pierre Fresnay
French postcard by Editions O.P., Paris, no. 205. Photo: Teddy Piaz, Paris.

Pierre Fresnay
French postcard by A. Noyer, no. 1291. Photo: Raymond Voinquel, Paris.

Pierre Fresnay
French postcard, no. 94. Photo: C.P.L.F.

Pierre Fresnay
French postcard, no. 153.

I Am An Actor


After the war, Pierre Fresnay was detained in prison while allegations of collaboration were investigated. After being held for six weeks, he was released as a result of a lack of evidence. Despite Fresnay’s declarations that he worked in films to help save the French film industry in a period of crisis, the move damaged his popularity with the public. For the remainder of his film career, he would appear mainly in lesser roles in comparatively minor films.

There are some exceptions. In 1947 he played Vincent de Paul (namesake of the Vincent de Paul Society) in Monsieur Vincent (Maurice Cloche, 1947), for which he won the Volpi cup for best actor at the Venice Film Festival. Monsieur Vincent was the first French language film to win an Academy Award (in 1948).

Another success was Dieu a besoin des homes/God Needs Men (Jean Delannoy, 1950) with Madeleine Robinson, for which he was nominated for a BAFTA award, the British Oscar. Fresnay also portrayed Nobel Peace Prize laureate Albert Schweitzer in Il est minuit, Docteur Schweitzer/It Is Midnight Dr. Schweitzer (André Haguet, 1952).

In 1954, he published his memoirs, Je suis comédien (I am an actor). His last film was the comedy Les Vieux de la vieille/The Old Chaps (Gilles Grangier, 1960) with Jean Gabin. Throughout his career, he had maintained that he was a stage actor first and a film actor second. The cinema had clearly less appeal to him.

Pierre Fresnay continued to perform regularly on stage through to the 1960s and 1970s. In the early 1970s, he appeared in a few films for television. From then on, he co-directed with Yvonne Printemps the Théâtre de la Michodière in Paris until his death in 1975.

Pierre Fresnay died of respiratory problems at the age of 77 at Neuilly-sur-Seine and is interred there side by side with Printemps in the Neuilly-sur-Seine community cemetery. Before marrying Printemps he had married and divorced actresses Rachel Berendt (1917-1920) and Berthe Dovy (1923–1929). Asked how to say his name, he told The Literary Digest "I think my name is to be pronounced fray-nay. At least, it is the way I pronounce it."


French trailer for the DVD Marseille Trilogy after the restaurayion in 2016. Source: Digital Ciné (YouTube).


Trailer for La Grande Illusion/Grand Illusion (1937). Source: Danios 12345 (YouTube).


Trailer for Le Corbeau/The Raven (1943). Source: Dyran (YouTube).


French trailer for Monsieur Vincent (1947). Source: Lionsgate VOD (YouTube).

Sources: James Travers (Le Film Guide), Christian Grenier (L’encinémathèque - French), Caroline Hanotte (CinéArtistes - French), Hal Erickson (AllMovie), Thomas Staedeli (Cyranos), AlloCiné (French), Encyclopedia Brittanica, Wikipedia (French and English), and IMDb.

22 August 2016

Dany Carrel

French starlet Dany Carrel (1932) was a welcome breath of sexy exoticism in the French cinema of the 1950s and 1960s. With her bob haircut of dark reddish hair, a pair of incredible oriental eyes, and her friendly manners, she played good-willed flirtatious girls in many melodramas and comedies, alongside top directors and stars.

Dany Carrel
French postcard by Editions P.I., Paris, offered by Les carbones Korès (Carboplane), no. 665. Photo: Sam Lévin.

Dany Carrel
French postcard by Editions du Globe, Paris, no. 268. Photo: Studio Harcourt.

Dany Carrel
French postcard by Editions du Globe, no. 386. Photo: Studio Harcourt.

Dany Carrel
French postcard by Editions du Globe, Paris, no. 436. Photo: Sam Lévin.

Dany Carrel
German postcard by Ufa, Berlin-Tempelhof, no. 3543. Photo: Sam Lévin / Unifrance Film.

Saucy Girls


Dany Carrel was born as Yvonne Suzanne Chazelles du Chaxel in Tourane, French Indochina (now Da Nang, Vietnam), in 1932. She was the child of French customs agent Aimé Chazelles of Chaxel and native Kam. Only many years later she would learn of this heritage. Aimé had a legitimate wife back in Europe and still produced two children with Kam (Yvonne and her sister Alice). He died soon after, and Yvonne was shipped to France to meet a godmother that placed her in a religious institution.

After some acting classes Dany got an entry in the cinema. She made her film début in Dortoir des grandes/Inside a Girls' Dormitory (Henri Decoin, 1953), starring Jean Marais and Françoise Arnoul.

Decoin proposed to change her name, suggesting Carrel as a medical book written by a doctor named Alexis Carrel was lying on his desk. Yvonne, tired of being nicknamed Vovonne ou Vonette, chose herself the Dany part, a diminutive that couldn’t be played with or distorted.

For the next few years, Dany Carrel could be seen in minor melodramas and light comedies, often playing saucy girls from the working-class neighbourhood, but never with a really mean streak.

Quickly, she got the main female starring roles in lower-budgeted pictures, and she also co-starred with such acting giants as Gérard Philipe in Les grandes manoeuvres/The Grand Manoeuvre (René Clair, 1954) and Pot-Bouille/Lovers of Paris (Julien Duvivier, 1957), or Jean Gabin in Des gens sans importance/People of No Importance (Henri Verneuil, 1956).

Dany was a big revelation to the public in Portes des Lilas/Gate of Lilacs (René Clair, 1957), opposite Pierre Brasseur. Sometimes tricked by wanna-be bad boys, Dany always retained her intelligence and never played dumb.

Dany Carrel, Gérard Philipe and Danièle Darrieux in Pot-Bouille (1957)
East-German postcard by VEB Progress Filmvertrieb, no. 1294, 1960. Photo: publicity still for Pot-Bouille/Lovers of Paris (Julien Duvivier, 1957) with Gérard Philipe and Danielle Darrieux.

Dany Carrel
French postcard by Editions P.I., Paris, offered by Les Carbones Korès 'Carbopane', no. 922. Photo: Sam Lévin.

Dany Carrel
French postcard by Editions P.I., Paris, no. 1030. Photo: Sam Lévin.

Dany Carrel
French postcard by Editions du Globe, no. 810. Photo: Sam Lévin.

Dany Carrel
French postcard by St. Anne, Marseille. Photo: Sam Lévin.

Damsel in Distress


Then Dany Carrel began a phase of international projects, such as the German-French co-production Die Gans von Sedan/Without Trumpet or Drum (Helmut Käutner, 1959) with Hardy Krüger, and the Hollywood production The Enemy General (George Sherman, 1960) starring Van Johnson.

In 1960 she appeared also in two interesting horror films, Il mulino delle donne di pietra/Mill of the Stone Women (Giorgio Ferroni, 1960) and The Hands of Orlac (Edmond T. Gréville, 1960). The Franco-Italian co-production Il mulino delle donne di pietra, starring Pierre Brice, has effective macabre touches. Dany makes for a very believable damsel in distress, and also gets to reveal a bit more of herself when she’s tied down on a table and menaced by a mad doctor.

A couple of times Dany appeared ‘nude’ on screen, but in the early 1960s nude usually meant a sideway glimpse at a naked breast. In The Hands of Orlac, which was simultaneously filmed in a French version, Les mains d’Orlac, she starred with Mel Ferrer and Christopher Lee.

For the first half of the 1960s, she was seen in several gangster pictures, with serious or comedic plots. She co-starred with some of the great comedians of that era, including Louis de Funès in Une souris chez les hommes/A Mouse with the Men (Jacques Poitrenaud, 1964), and Jean Lefebvre in Un idiot à Paris/Idiot in Paris (Serge Korber, 1967).

She got a good supporting part in Henri-Georges Clouzot’s La prisonnière/Woman in Chains (Henri-Georges Clouzot, 1968) starring Romy Schneider. Dany played a nude model sweating it out when only wearing a see-through raincoat under harsh lights for a fetish photo session.

Then she began to slow down on film roles. After the heist film Trois milliards sans ascenseur/3000 Million Without an Elevator (Roger Pigaut, 1972) she mainly appeared in TV roles. In the early 1980s she returned to the screen in comedies like Faut s'les faire!... Ces légionnaires/Let Them Do It!... These legionnaires (Alain Nauroy, 1981) with Henri Garcin.

In 1991 she published her book L’annamite/The Vietnamese, recalling her youth. She supervised the TV adaptation L’annamite (Thierry Chabert, 1995), in which actress Gaëlle Le Fur played the Yvonne/Dany role, and Dany Carrel herself appeared as the adult Dany. That same year, she could also be seen in the play Laisse parler ta mère/Let Your Mother Talk.

At Cult Sirens, the webmaster concludes in his excellent profile on her: "One of a kind in the looks department in French cinema of the fifties and part of the list of actress who began to push the boundaries of frank eroticism on the big screen, Dany Carrel is often remembered for her bob haircut of dark reddish hair, exquisite cheekbones and friendly manners, always being able to save a movie from tedium from her mere presence."

Dany Carrel
German postcard by ISV, no. M 7. Photo: Les Films Morceau / Europa-Film.

Dany Carrel
Belgian collectors card by Merbotex, Brussels for Palace, Izegem, no. 23. Photo: Sam Lévin.

Dany Carrel
French postcard by Editions P.I., Paris, offered by Korès (Carboplane), no. 1064.

Dany Carrel
Italian postcard, no. 3.

Dany Carrel
Romanian postcard by Casa Filmului Acin.


Trailer for The Hands of Orlac (1960). Source: Sinister Cinema (YouTube).

Sources: Cult Sirens, Wikipedia (French), and IMDb.

21 August 2016

Gunnar Tolnaes

Norwegian-born actor Gunnar Tolnaes (1879-1940) conquered the Danish film market in the middle of the 1910s. His most famous performance was an Indian prince in the Danish Orientalist melodrama Maharadjahens Yndlingshustru/The Maharaja's Favourite Wife (1917). It was so popular that it had a Danish sequel in 1919, and a German sequel in 1921. During the 1920s Tolnaes alternated acting in Danish films with roles in German productions, until the end of the silent era.

Gunnar Tolnaes
German postcard by Verlag W.J. Mörlins, Berlin / Vertrieb Ross-Verlag, Berlin, no. 9001/3. Photo: Karl Schenker.

Gunnar Tolnaes
Vintage postcard by ABC, no. 375/1.

Gunnar Tolnaes
Vintage postcard by ABC, no. 375/3.

Gunnar Tolnaes
Vintage postcard by ABC, no. 375/4.

Gunnar Tolnaess
German postcard in the Film Sterne series by Rotophot. Photo: Nordisk. Collection: Didier Hanson.

Super Power


Gunnar Tolnaes (Tolnæs) was born in Christiana (now Oslo), Norway, in 1879. His parents were Ole Gundersen Tolnæs and Helene Andresen (Braathu).

He studied law and later medicine. He made his stage début in 1906, and was an company member of the Nationaltheatret in Oslo between 1908 and 1916.

In 1913, he started his film career for the Swedish company Svenska Biografteatern AB in Stockholm and worked there with legendary director Victor Sjöström. They made the silent dramas Halvblod/Half Breed (Victor Sjöström, 1915) with Karin Molander, Gatans barn/Children of the Streets (Victor Sjöström, 1914) starring Lili Beck, and En av de många/One of the Many (Victor Sjöström, 1915).

He also worked with the other great director of the silent Swedish cinema, Mauritz Stiller. They made Bröderna/Brothers (Mauritz Stiller, 1914) with Carlo Wieth, and När konstnärer älska/When Artists Love (1915, Mauritz Stiller), with Lili Beck.

Then Tolnaes moved to Denmark, where he was offered a contract at the Nordisk studio. He was immediately successful with Doktor X/Doctor X (1915) directed by Robert Dinesen.

Gunnar Tolnaes in Der Narr seiner Liebe
German postcard by Photochemie, no. K. 1913. Photo: Nordisk Films. Gunnar Tolnaes in Pjerrot (Hjalmar Davidsen, 1917), with Ulla Nielsen as The Child.

Gunnar Tolnaes
German postcard by Photochemie, Berlin, no. K. 1920. Photo: Nordisk. Publicity still for Pjerrot (Hjalmar Davidsen, 1917).

Gunnar Tolnaes in Der Mann ohne Gnade
German postcard by Photochemie, no. K.2372. Photo: Nordisk Films. Gunnar Tolnaes in Den Retfærdiges Hustru (A.W. Sandberg, 1917), co-starring Else Frölich.

Gunnar Tolnaes
German postcard by Photochemie, Berlin, no. K. 2995. Photo: Nordisk. Publicity still for Maharadjahens Yndlingshustru/The Maharajah's Favourite Wife (1917).

Gunnar Tolnaes, Lilly Jacobson
German postcard by Photochemie, Berlin. Photo: Nordisk. Publicity still for Maharadjahens Yndlingshustru/The Maharajah's Favourite Wife (1917) with Lilly Jacobson.

Indian Prince


The studio heads at Nordisk hoped that Gunnar Tolnaes would become as popular as their biggest star, Valdemar Psilander.

Tolnaes had his most famous performance for Nordisk in the Orientalist melodrama Maharadjahens Yndlingshustru I/The Maharajah's Favourite Wife I (Robert Dinesen, 1917). He starred as an Indian prince and Lilly Jacobson was his love interest.

The film was so popular that it had a sequel in 1919, directed by August Blom and again starring Tolnaes and Jacobson. In 1921 the German studio PAGU would produce another sequel Die Lieblingsfrau des Maharadschas - 3. Teil/The Maharajah's Favourite Wife III (Max Mack, 1921) in which Aud Egede Nissen replaced Jacobson.

The Danish film industry was an international superpower in the 1910s and the Nordisk productions were the most successful of them all - especially in Germany. Among Tolnaes' successes were Den retfærdiges hustru/The Righteous Wife (A.W. Sandberg, 1917) with Else Frölich, Den mystiske tjener/The mysterious servant (A.W. Sandberg, 1917) and the science-fiction film Himmelskibet/400 Million Miles from Earth (Holger Madsen, 1918).

Gunnar Tolnaes and Lilly Jacobson in Himmelskibet/Das Himmelschiff
German postcard by Photochemie, Berlin, no. K. 2149. Photo: Nordisk. Publicity still for Himmelskibet/Das Himmelschiff (Holger-Madsen, 1918) with Lilly Jacobson as Marya, the Martian leader's daughter, and Gunnar Tolnaes as Avanti Planetaros.

Gunnar Tolnaes in Himmelskibet (1918)
German postcard by Photochemie, Berlin, no. K. 2160. Photo: Nordisk. Publicity still for Himmelskibet/Das Himmelschiff (Holger-Madsen, 1918) with Gunnar Tolnaes as Avanti Planetaros.

Clara Wieth and Gunnar Tolnaes in Stodderprinsessen (1920)
Latvian postcard, no. 14. Photo: Nordisk. Publicity still for Stodderprinsessen/The Rags Princess (A.W. Sandberg, 1920) with Clara Wieth.

Gunnar Tolnaes in Little Dorrit
Finnish postcard, no. 433. The postcard carries a stamp of the Finnish film inspection office. Photo: publicity still for the Charles Dickens adaptation Lille Dorritt/Little Dorrit (A.W. Sandberg, 1924), starring Karina Bell as Little Dorrit and Gunnar Tolnaes as Arthur Clennam.

Gunnar Tolnaes
German postcard by Photochemie, Berlin, no. K 1931. Photo: Nordisk. Publicity still for Kærlighedsøen/Love Lake (A.W. Sandberg, 1924).

Less Success


In the 1920s, Gunnar Tolnaes worked often with famous Danish director A.W. Sandberg.

He appeared among others in his Stodderprinsessen/The Rags Princess (A.W. Sandberg, 1920) with Clara Pontoppidan aka Clara Wieth, Kan disse ojne lyve?/Can these eyes lie? (A.W. Sandberg, 1921), Min ven privatdetektiven/My Friend the Private Detective (A.W. Sandberg, 1924), and the Charles Dickens adaptation Lille Dorrit/Little Dorrit (A.W. Sandberg, 1924) with Karina Bell.

The Danish film industry gradually lost its supremacy in Europe, and Gunnar Tolnaes' films also had less success. He alternated acting in Danish films with roles in German films, and continued to do so until the end of the silent era.

His first German film had been Die Lieblingsfrau des Maharadschas - 3. Teil/The Maharajah's Favourite Wife III (Max Mack, 1921). After this success he appeared in productions like Sturmflut des Lebens/Storm Surge of Life (Paul L. Stein, 1921) with Charlotte Ander, Die Flucht in die Ehe/The Flight Into Marriage (Artur Retzbach, 1922), and Wilhelm (later: William) Dieterle's Geschlecht in Fesseln/Sex in Chains (1928).

His last film was Der Narr seiner Liebe/Fool For Love (1929), directed by actress Olga Tschechova. Gunnar Tolnaes would never make a sound film. He died in 1940 in Oslo, aged 60. He is buried with his family at Vestre gravlund.

Gunnar Tolnaes
German postcard by Photochemie, Berlin, no. K. 1474. Photo: Nordisk.

Gunnar Tolnaes
German postcard by Photochemie, Berlin, no. K 1567. Photo: Nordisk.

Gunnar Tolnaes, Zanny Petersen
German postcard by Photochemie, Berlin, no. K. 1662. Photo: Nordisk. With Zanny Petersen.

Gunnar Tolnaes
German postcard by Photochemie, Berlin, no. K 1668. Photo: Nordisk.

Gunnar Tolnaes in Die Lieblingsfrau des Maharadscha (1926)
German postcard by Ross Verlag, no. 1277/1, 1927-1928. Photo: Deutsch-Nordische Film Union. Publicity still for Maharadjahens yndlingshustru III/The Maharaja's Favourite Wife (A.W. Sandberg, 1926).

Sources: Thomas Staedeli (Cyranos), Wikipedia (English, Danish and German) and IMDb.