24 July 2021

Against all flags: Wolfgang Staudte

In the Space Machine section of Il Cinema Ritrovato 2021 in Bologna, one of the programmes is 'Against all flags: Wolfgang Staudte', curated by Olaf Möller. Wolfgang Staudte (1906-1984) is one of the most widely venerated directors of German post-war cinema. He directed the first German film after the Second World War, the masterpiece Die Mörder sind unter uns (1946).

Hildegard Knef in Die Mürder sind unter uns (1946)
East-German postcard by VEB Progress Film-Vertrieb, Berlin, no. 7/319. 1957. Photo: DEFA. Hildegard Knef in Die Mürder sind unter uns/Murderers among us (Wolfgang Staudte, 1946), also known as the first Trümmerfilm, an aesthetic choice for those films made directly after World War II dealing with the impact of the battles in the countries at the center of the war. The style is characterized by its use of location exteriors among the 'trümmer' (rubble) of bombed-down cities to bring the gritty, depressing reality of the lives of the civilian survivors in those early years. Staudte's work in anti-Nazi films, such as Murderers among us (1946), was also a personal working through of his film career under the Nazis (he played a small part in the anti-Semitic film Jud Süß/Süss the Jew (Veit Harlan, 1940)).

Alexander Kerst in Ciske - Ein Kind braucht Liebe (1955)
German postcard. Photo: Omega Film. Autographed postcard of Alexander Kerst in Ciske - Ein Kind Braucht Liebe (Wolfgang Staudte, 1955), based on the novel by Dutch author Piet Bakker. This was the German version of the parallel-made Dutch film Ciske, de rat (Wolfgang Staudte, 1955), situated and shot in the city of Amsterdam (with interiors shot at the Amsterdam Cinetone film studio). Kerst played the sailor Freymuth, Ciske's father. Part of the Dutch cast played in the German version as well, including Kees Brusse as Ciske's teacher Bruis, and young Dick van der Velde as Ciske himself. While the Dutch version became the third-best viewed Dutch film in the Netherlands and won a Silver Lion in Venice, the German version was not a huge success in Germany and remained one of the most unknown films of Staudte.

Maria Schell in Rose Bernd (1957)
German postcard by Franz Josef Rüdel Filmpostkartenverlag, Hamburg-Bergedorf, no. FT 21. Photo: Bavaria / Schorcht / Gabriele. Maria Schell in Rose Bernd (Wolfgang Staudte, 1957). The film was adapted from the play of the same name by Gerhart Hauptmann and was entered into the 1957 Cannes Film Festival.

June Ritchie
German postcard by Krüger, no. 902/190. Photo: Bernard of Hollywood. June Ritchie as Polly Peachum in Die Dreigroschenoper/The Three Penny Opera (Wolfgang Staudte, 1962). The reactions to this French/German adaptation of the Kurt Weill-Bertolt Brecht piece were mixed although the critics were positive about the central performances of Curd Jürgens as robber captain MacHeath and his romantic interest Polly Peachum (Ritchie), the daughter of beggar king J. J. Peachum (Gert Frobe). For the film's American release, distributor Joseph E. Levine hired Sammy Davis Jr. to play the Ballad Singer, who narrates the story, introduces the scenes, and sings the opera's most famous song 'Moritat' (The Ballad of Mack the Knife).

Attacking the conservative establishment’s black-and-white lies


Olaf Möller on the festival site:" Wolfgang Staudte (1906-1984) is arguably the most widely venerated director of German postwar cinema (besides Helmut Käutner), albeit less for his art than for his political outspokenness – a man of the left shackled to no orthodoxies.

Like no other prominent figure of the early Bonn Republic film industry, Staudte attacked the conservative establishment’s black-and-white lies, addressed issues on which others remained silent, and shed light on dark stories of the present as well as the recent past. He did this, in the same way, more or less, as he had done between 1945 and 1956 for DEFA, the main production company of what in 1949 became the German Democratic Republic.

There was one key difference between these periods. With Die Mörder sind unter uns (1946), Rotation (1948), and Der Untertan (1951), he was in synch with the communist mainstream, making him the (soon to be founded) nation’s poster boy for the seventh art, while with Rosen für den Staatsanwalt (Roses for the Prosecutor, 1959), Kirmes (1960) and Herrenpartie/Muški izlet (1964), he found himself called 'Nestbeschmutzer' by the other Germany’s rightwing mainstream, its reactionary loudmouths.

Staudte was very serious about his politics and certainly wanted to be remembered as a rebel whose world-weary, laconic version of “Fiat iustitia et pereat mundus” (Let justice be done, though the world perish) would be “Cowardice turns every form of government into a dictatorship” (as the commemorative plaque at his birthplace in Saarbrücken has it)."

Charlie Rivel in Akrobat Schööön! (1943)
German postcard by Film-Foto-Verlag, no. 3908/1, 1941-1944. Photo: Tobis / Star-Foto-Atelier. Charlie Rivel in Akrobat Schööön!/Bravo Acrobat! (Wolfgang Staudte, 1943). In this comedy, Staudte's first feature film, a circus clown rises to stardom. The film was loosely based on the Spanish-born Rivel's own life, who was a famous musical clown.

Hildegard Knef in Die Mürder sind unter uns (1946)
German postcard by VEB Progress Film-Vertrieb, Berlin. Photo: DEFA, no. 14 M/300. Hildegard Knef in Die Mürder sind unter uns/Murderers Among Us (Wolfgang Staudte, 1946).

Raf Vallone in Rose Bernd (1957)
German postcard by Kunst und Bild, Berlin-Charlottenburg, no. V 118. Photo: Bavaria / Schorcht / Gabriele. Raf Vallone in Rose Bernd (Wolfgang Staudte, 1957). Following 1956 Wolfgang Staudte worked in West Germany.

Maria Schell in Rose Bernd (1957)
Dutch postcard by N.V. Int. Filmpers (I.F.P.), Amsterdam, no. 1075. Photo: Bavaria Filmkunst. Maria Schell in Rose Bernd/The Sins of Rose Bernd (Wolgang Staudte, 1957).

A director of extraordinary versatility


Olaf Möller: "But none of this says anything about Staudte the filmmaker, a director of extraordinary versatility whose finest achievements can be found in works often just superficially discussed, such as the proto-feminist drama Rose Bernd (1957), or the allegorical coming-of-age tale Das Lamm (1964).

It also says little about his strengths, which were action, adventure and melodrama, and neither about his weaknesses, which are mainly found in his attempts at political satire.

Despite their importance, Der Untertan and Rosen für den Staatsanwalt are loud pasquinades, whose hectoring humour betrays Staudte’s elegance and wit as seen in less well-known films on similar subjects, such as Der letzte Zeuge (1960) or Der Snob (1983).

It also says little the delight Staudte took in making films – in applying his craft, shaping pertinent ideas with even the humblest materials – which he rarely talked about himself.

Staudte may be an even greater filmmaker than he’s commonly given credit for. One just needs to understand what it means to be a citizen-artist, a man for whom being in dialogue with the masses was a duty, a privilege and an honour."

Hélène Rémy in Pezzo, capopezzo e capitano (1958)
German postcard by Ufa, no. FK 4166. Photo: Peter Bamberger Prod. / Ufa. Hélène Rémy in Pezzo, capopezzo e capitano/Always Victorious (Wolfgang Staudte, 1958).

Ellen Schwiers in Der letzte Zeuge (1960)
East-German postcard by VEB Progress Film-Vertrieb, Berlin, no. 1679, 1962. Ellen Schwiers in Der letzte Zeuge/The Last Witness (Wolfgang Staudte, 1960). This crime film, also starring Martin Held, was entered into the 1961 Cannes Film Festival.

Mario Adorf in Ganovenehre (1966)
German postcard. Artwork: Ole Jensen. Mario Adorf in Ganovenehre (Wolfgang Staudte, 1966). Caption: Mario Adorf as Artisten-Orje. No more or less than quality entertainment by Wolfgang Staudte, who from the 1960s onwards was confined to films like this one: skillfully directed amusement that only shows the hand of the master occasionally. This film opens with a scene that reminds of one of his best films: Der Untertan, but it is out of place in this light comedy.

Horst Frank in Fluchtweg St. Pauli (1971)
German postcard by Rüdel-Verlag, Hamburg. Photo: Constantin / Allianz / Vogelmann. Horst Frank in Fluchtweg St. Pauli - Großalarm für die Davidswache/Jailbreak in Hamburg (Wolfgang Staudte, 1971). This thriller was shot on location around Hamburg including on the Reeperbahn. By the 1970s, Wolfgang Staudte's work was no longer considered particularly modern and he moved to television, on shows such as Der Kommissar and Tatort.

Sources: Il Cinema Ritrovato, J. Steed (IMDb), Wikipedia and IMDb.

23 July 2021

Romy, life lived and fiction

EFSP resides in Bologna, Italy, for Il Cinema Ritrovato. For 'the Cinephile's heaven' section, director Volker Schöndorf curated the programme 'Romy, life lived and fiction'. For this post, we selected 25 of our favourite postcards of the enigmatic Romy Schneider. Randomly arranged.

Romy Schneider
Dutch postcard.

Romy Schneider in Boccaccio '70
Dutch postcard. Photo: HAFBO. Romy Schneider dressed in Chanel in the episode Il lavoro/The Job (1961) by Luchino Visconti, part of the episode film Boccaccio '70.

Romy Schneider and Magda Schneider in Venice
Dutch postcard by Gebr. Spanjersberg. Photo: Ufa/Film-Foto. Romy Schneider and Magda Schneider in Venice. The photo was made during the shooting of Sissi - Schicksalsjahre einer Kaiserin/Sissi: The Fateful Years of an Empress (Ernst Marischka, 1957).


O.E. Hasse and Romy Schneider in Kitty und die grosse Welt (1956)
Dutch postcard by N.V. Int. Filmpers (I.F.P.), Amsterdam, no. 1030. Photo: Erma / Herzog Film. O.E. Hasse and Romy Schneider in Kitty und die grosse Welt/Kitty and the Great Big World (Alfred Weidenmann, 1956).

Romy Schneider in Mädchen in Uniform (1958)
Dutch postcard by Takken, Utrecht (printed by 't Sticht), no. AX 3879, posted by mail in 1959. Photo: Grimm / C.C.C. / Gloria. Romy Schneider in Mädchen in Uniform/Girls in Uniform (Géza von Radványi, 1958).

Romy Schneider
Dutch postcard by Uitg. Takken, Utrecht, no. 3175. Photo: Filmex NV. Publicity still for Monpti/Love From Paris (Helmut Käutner, 1957).

Romy Schneider
Vintage postcard, no. 2759.

Romy Schneider
Romanian postcard by Casa Filmului Acin.

Romy Schneider
German postcard by Ufa, no. CK-204. Photo: Vogelmann / Ufa.

Romy Schneider in Les choses de la vie (1970)
Romanian postcard by Casa Filmului Acin. Photo: Romy Schneider in Les choses de la vie/The Things of Life (Claude Sautet, 1970).

Transparent and mysterious at the same time


From the Cinema Ritrovato website: "She made her debut in the tender colours of Austrian fairytales, alongside her mother Magda who had starred in Max Ophuls’s Liebelei and was a well-known mistress of Nazi officials.

For several years she was Sissi, loved by audiences around the world and enjoying a resounding success that seemed to promise a future in purely commercial cinema.

Instead, Romy Schneider left it all behind – Germany and her sweet youth – and emerged in international cinema with clarity, depth and substance. A new beauty and new talent began to bloom.

Welles wanted her immediately for The Trial, and in Deray’s The Swimming Pool her allure contrasts with Jane Birkin’s adolescent fluttering (and between them Alain Delon – a trio you’ll lose your mind over).

They say that she never recovered from Delon abandoning her, but life had other terrible wounds in store for her. She was directed by Losey, Visconti, Tavernier, Costa-Gavras and Sautet, who was especially able to capture her most authentic aura: transparent and mysterious at the same time.

She passed away too soon and was caught on film just in her prime.

Romy and Magda Schneider in Sissi
Dutch postcard by Gebr. Spanjersberg, no. 1062. Photo: Ufa. Romy Schneider and Magda Schneider in Sissi - Schicksalsjahre einer Kaiserin Sissi/Sissi - Fateful Years of an Empress (Ernst Marischka, 1957). The scene is set on Corfu in Greece.

Romy Schneider
French postcard by Editions du Globe, Paris. Photo: Sam Lévin.

Romy Schneider, Horst Buchholz
Dutch postcard by Uitg. Takken, Utrecht, no. 3572. With Horst Buchholz.

Alain Delon and Romy Schneider in Christine (1958)
Dutch postcard by Uitg. Takken, Utrecht, no. 3922. Photo: N.V. Meteor Film, Amsterdam/Spava-Play Art Prod. Alain Delon and Romy Schneider in Christine (Pierre Gaspard-Huit, 1958).

Romy Schneider in Max et les ferrailleurs (1971)
French postcard by Editions F. Nugeron, no. Star 41. Romy Schneider in Max et les ferrailleurs/Max and the Junkmen (Claude Sautet, 1971).

Romy Schneider
Dutch postcard by Gebr. Spanjersberg N.V., Rotterdam, no. 1204/559. Photo: Universum-Film Aktiengesellschaft (UFA), Berlin-Tempelhof. Caption: "Gay picture of Romy Schneider during her engagement party." With her brother Wolfi.

Romy Schneider and Yves Montand in Clair de femme (1979)
French postcard by Editions Nugeron in the Star Series, no. 58. Photo: Yves Montand and Romy Schneider in Clair de femme/Womanlight (Costa Gravas, 1979).

Thomas Milian & Romy Schneider in Boccaccio 70
Publicity still used in Germany, distributed by Rank, with a mark of the German censor FSK. Thomas Milian & Romy Schneider in Luchino Visconti's episode Il Lavoro in the episode film Boccaccio 70 (1962).

Curd Jürgens and Romy Schneider in Katia (1959)
German postcard by ISV, no. 4. Photo: Curd Jürgens and Romy Schneider in Katia/Adorable Sinner (Robert Siodmak, 1959).

Helmut Berger and Romy Schneider in Ludwig (1972)
French postcard in the Collection Cinéma by Editions Art & Scene, Paris, no. CI 16, 1996. Photo: Mario Tursi. Helmut Berger and Romy Schneider in Ludwig (Luchino Visconti, 1972).

Romy Schneider and Carlos Thompson in Die Halbzarte (1959)
Dutch postcard by Gebr. Spanjersberg N.V., Rotterdam (Dutch licency holder fot Ufa), no. 1179. Photo: Ufa/Film-foto. Romy Schneider and Carlos Thompson in Die Halbzarte/Eva (Rolf Thiele, 1959).

Erich Ponto and Romy Schneider in Robinson soll nicht sterben (1957)
Dutch postcard by Int. Filmpers (IFP), Amsterdam, no. 1091. Photo: Erich Ponto as Daniël Defoe, author of Robinson Crusoe, and Romy Schneider as Maud in Robinson soll nicht sterben/The Legend of Robinson Crusoe (Josef von Báky, 1957).

Elisabeth Flickenschildt and Romy Schneider in Scampolo (1958)
Dutch postcard by Gebr. Spanjersberg N.V., Rotterdam. Photo: Ufa/Film-Foto. Elisabeth Flickenschildt and Romy Schneider in Scampolo (Alfred Weidenmann, 1958).

Romy Schneider in Ein Engel auf Erden (1959)
Dutch postcard by DRC Holland, no. 4536. DRC was that year the Dutch licence holder for Ufa/Film-Foto. Photo: Ufa. Probably for the film Ein Engel auf Erden/Mademoiselle Ange/An Angel on Wheels (Géza von Radványi 1959), with Romy Schneider as Henri Vidal's angel custodian camouflaged as a stewardess.

Romy Schneider and Karlheinz Böhm in Sissi
Dutch postcard by Gebr. Spanjersberg, Rotterdam, no. [061]. Photo: Ufa. Spanjersberg was at the time the Dutch licence holder of Ufa/Film-Foto. Romy Schneider and Karlheinz Böhm in Sissi - Schicksalsjahre einer Kaiserin Sissi/Sissi - Fateful Years of an Empress (1957) written and directed by Austrian Ernst Marischka.

For many more Romy Schneider postcards check out our Flickr Album Romy.

22 July 2021

One hundred years ago: 1921

In 'The Time Machine' section of Il Cinema Ritrovato Festival one of the yearly programs is 'One Hundred Years Ago', curated this year by Karl Wratschko and Mariann Lewinsky. They write at the festival site: "1921 turned out to be a surprising vintage, a meeting point of ‘not yet’ and ‘already’. Top directors Ernst Lubitsch (Die Bergkatze) and Victor Sjöström (Körkarlen) are still working in Europe; soon they will have left for Hollywood. Weimar Cinema (discovery: Die Ratten by Hanns Kobe) and avant-garde movements (Ruttmann and Richter) already make their mark, but Soviet production has not yet picked up. This probably explains why Gosfilmofond is able to offer us unique prints of imported films from its collection, works not seen in decades, such as Sessue Hayakawa’s The Swamp and ‘Fatty’ Arbuckle’s mythical Crazy to Marry, his last release before scandal and Will Hays abruptly transformed the popular idol into a non-person. Stars such as Alla Nazimova (Camille) and Henny Porten (Hintertreppe) not only continued their acting careers in 1921, they were also their own independent producers. When it comes to comedy, 1921 was an especially wonderful year, with extraordinary performers (Arbuckle, Biscot, Chaplin, Hardy, Keaton, Laurel, and Larry Semon) intent on making us laugh, all of us together – once again." For this post, Ivo Blom selected 21 postcards of films that premiered in 1921.

Henny Porten in Hintertreppe
German postcard by Ross Verlag, no. 649/1. Photo: Henny Porten-Film. Henny Porten in the classic Kammerspiel film Hintertreppe/Backstairs (Leopold Jessner, 1921).

Pola Negri in Die Bergkatze (1921)
German postcard by Ross Verlag, Berlin, no. 760/5. Photo: Alex Binder. Pola Negri in Die Bergkatze/Wildcat (Ernst Lubitsch, 1921).

Victor Sjöström in Körkarlen - The Phantom Carriage
Swedish postcard by Ed. Nordisk Konst, Stockholm, no. 1117/7. Photo: Svensk Filmindustri. Victor Sjöström in Körkarlen/The Phantom Carriage (Victor Sjöström, 1920). As he is the last one to die on New Year's Eve, the drunkard David Holm (Sjöström) is forced to take over the phantom carriage for a full year, collecting the souls of the dead.

Blandine Ebinger
German postcard by Ross Verlag, no. 6578/1, 1931-1932. Photo: Nini and Carry Hess, Frankfurt a/M.

German cabaret singer and actress Blandine Ebinger (1899-1993) appeared in Die Ratten/The Rats (Hans Kobe, 1921). Author Erich Kästner described her as “This lisping, scrawny person with the big, severe eyes is a master of the tragic-grotesque.” Her cinema career continued for seventy (70!) years. Her more than 90 film roles were once bigger, once smaller, but all her characters distinguished through her impressive acting.

Sessue Hayakawa in The Swamp (1921)
American arcade postcard. Sessue Hayakawa in The Swamp (Colin Campbell, 1921).

Sessue Hayakawa (1889–1973) was a Japanese actor who starred in more than 80 American, Japanese, French, German, and British films. He was the first Asian actor to find stardom first in Hollywood and later in Europe. His 'broodingly handsome' good looks and typecasting as a sinister villain with sexual dominance made him a heartthrob among female audiences in the 1910s and early 1920s. 

Fatty Arbuckle
German postcard by Ross Verlag, no. 799/2, 1925-1926. Photo: Phoebus Film.

In 1920, American silent film actor, comedian Roscoe ‘Fatty’ Arbuckle (1887-1933) signed a contract with Paramount Pictures for US$1 million. On 28 August 1921, his Crazy to Marry (James Cruze, 1921) premiered. But between November 1921 and April 1922, Arbuckle was the defendant in three widely publicised trials for the rape and manslaughter of actress Virginia Rappe. Following the trials, his films were banned and he was publicly ostracized.

Alla Nazimova in Camille (1921)
German postcard by Ross Verlag, no. 830/1, 1925-1926. Photo: British-American Films A.G. Balag. Alla Nazimova in Camille (Ray C. Smallwood, 1921). Nazimova played the courtesan Marguerite opposite Rudolph Valentino as her idealistic young lover Armand. Camille is based on 'La Dame aux Camélias' (The Lady of the Camellias) by Alexandre Dumas, fils. The film was set in 1920s Paris, whereas the original version took place in Paris in the 1840s. It had lavish Art Deco sets and Rudolph Valentino later married the art director, Natacha Rambova.

Georges Biscot in L'orpheline (1921)
German postcard by Ross Verlag, Berlin, no. 1174/3, 1927-1928. Georges Biscot, presented in Germany as 'Biscot Meyer', in L'orpheline/The orphan (Louis Feuillade, 1921).

Charlie Chaplin and Jackie Coogan in The Kid (1921)
German postcard by Ross Verlag, no. 665/2. Photo: Hansaleih. Charlie Chaplin and Jackie Coogan in The Kid (Charles Chaplin, 1921).

Larry Semon
Spanish collectors card by Chocolates Amatller, Barcelona, in the 'Artistas de cine' series, no. 11: Larry Semon. Image: Martinez Surroca.

Lawrence 'Larry' Semon (1889-1928) was an American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter during the silent film era. In his day, Semon was considered a major film comedian, but he is now remembered mainly for working with both Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy before they started working together.

Not in Bologna, but also from 1921


Dorothy Dalton in Fool's Paradise (1921)
American postcard by Max B. Sheffer Card Co., Chicago (M.B.S.C.Co.), 1922. Photo: Paramount. Dorothy Dalton as Poll Patchouli in Fool's Paradise (Cecil B. DeMille, 1921).

William S. Hart in White Oak (1921)
American postcard by Max B. Sheffer Card Co., Chicago (M.B.S.C.Co.), 1922. Photo: Paramount. William S. Hart as Oak Miller in White Oak (Lambert Hillyer, 1921).

Diomira Jacobini in L'isola della felicità (1921)
Italian postcard. Photo: Fert Film. Diomira Jacobini in L'isola della felicità/The Island of Happiness (Luciano Doria, 1921). Caption: Towards new happiness.

Maria Jacobini and Lido Manetti in in Amore rosso
Italian postcard by Fotominio. Photo: G.B. Falci, Milano / Fert Film. Ida Carloni Talli, Maria Jacobini and Lido Manetti in Amore rosso/Red Love (Gennaro Righelli, 1921). Caption: During the corrida. Don Alvaro gets to know Juanita.

Vera Vergani and Nerio Bernardi in Il filo d'Arianna (1921)
Italian postcard by G. Vettori, Bologna, no. 453. Photo: Renato Cartoni (who was also the cameraman). Vera Vergani and Nerio Bernardi in Il filo d'Arianna/Ariadne's thread (Mario Caserini, 1921).

Ica Lenkeffy and Emil Fenyö in A szerelem mindent legyöz
Hungarian postcard. Photo: Korona Film Ica Lenkeffy and Emil Fenyö in A szerelem mindent legyöz/Love Conquers All (László Márkus, 1921). The film was scripted by Ladislaus Vajda and based on a novel by Ethel M. Dell. The subitle of the film is Minden poklokon keresztül/Through All Hells.

Pauline Brunius and Paul Seelig in En vildfagel (1921)
Swedish postcard by Axel Eliassons Konstförlag, Stockholm, no. 291. Photo: Skandia-Film. Pauline Brunius and Paul Seelig in the Swedish silent drama En vildfågel/Give Me My Son (John W. Brunius, 1921). Adapted from the play 'Skeppsbrott' (Shipwreck) by Samuel A. Duse. The title means literally 'The Wild Bird'. On 3 October 1921, En vildfågel premiered simultaneously in five cinemas in five different Swedish cities.

Teodora (1921)
Czech postcard. Armando Brasini's gigantic set for the Italian silent epic Teodora /Theodora (Leopoldo Carluccio, 1921).

Anna Q. Nilsson in Värmlänningarna (1921)
Swedish postcard by Officin. A.-B. Svea Film Imp., no. 17. Photo: Svea Film. Anna Q. Nilsson in Värmlänningarna (Erik Petschler, 1921), adapted from the play by Fredrik August Dahlgren.

Ila Lóth in Lengyelvér (1921)
Hungarian postcard by MFSI, no 24. Photo: May. Ila Lóth in Lengyelvér/Polish Blood (Béla Balogh, 1921).

Les Trois Mousquetaires, 15
French postcard by M. Le Deley, Paris. Photo: still from Les Trois Mousquetaires/The Three Musketeers (Henri Diamant Berger, 1921), based on the famous novel by Alexandre Dumas père, and produced by Pathé Consortium Cinéma. The Gascon D'Artagnan was played by Aimé Simon-Girard. The three musketeers were impersonated by Henri Rollan as Athos, Charles Martinelli as Porthos, and Pierre de Guingand as Aramis.

And please check out our posts on L'empereur des pauvres/The emperor of the poor (René Leprince, 1921), Favilla/Love's Labour Won (Ivo Illuminati, 1921), Il figlio di Madame Sans-Gêne/The Son of Madame Sans-Gêne (Baldassarre Negroni, 1921), La nave/The Ship (Gabriellino D'Annunzio, Mario Roncoroni, 1921), Il ponte dei sospiri/The Bridge of Sighs (Domenico Gaido, 1921), La preda/The prey (Guglielmo Zorzi, 1921), and La statua di carne/The statue of flesh (Mario Almirante, 1921).